Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Types of Mental Illness

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TYPES OF MENTAL ILLNESS

Type of mental illness article explains about the details of mental illness and it background in detail.

Serious types of mental illness include:

  1. Major depression/ Clinical Depression:

Type of mental illness,The significance or severity of depression ranges from mild and temporary phases of sadness or unhappiness to severe and insistent depression. Clinical depression is the more-severe form of depression, also known as major depression or major miserable disorder. It is not the same kind of depression as caused by any loss in life, such as the death of a loved one, or a medical condition, such as diabetes or a thyroid disorder.

For the diagnosis of major/ clinical depression, many doctors or psychiatrists uses the symptom criteria for major depressive disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association.

 

Major Depression
Major Depression

 

Signs and symptoms of clinical or major depression:

  • Feelings of sadness, blankness, desperateness or tearfulness.
  • Getting angry, irritated or frustrated over small small matters and that too very quickly.
  • Losing interest in most of the normal activities of life, such as hobbies, sports or sex.
  • Sleep disorders like getting insomnia that is restlessness/ wakefulness/ sleeplessness or sleeping too much irrespective of the time.
  • Too much of tiredness or lack of energy due to which even small tasks ask for extra efforts.
  • Either reduced hungriness and weight loss or vice-versa.
  • Nervousness, tension or impatience.
  • Getting very slow in speaking, thinking or any other body movements.
  • Feelings of unimportance or guilt which may be due to any past failures or self-blame.
  • Facing too much troubles in making any decisions, thinking or concentrating and remembering things.
  • Regular or repeated thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts or suicide.
  • Mysterious and unsolved physical problems such as back pain or headaches.

Such symptoms gets more severe enough and starts creating visible and evident problems in dealing with the relationships with others or in day-to-day activities, such as work, school or social activities.

Clinical depression can affect people of any age, including children. However, clinical depression symptoms, even if severe, usually improve with psychological counselling, antidepressant medications or a combination of the two.

2.Schizophrenia

Type of mental illness,Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness types in which a person interprets reality abnormally.

They are more into Hallucinations and Delusions as per which, they talk and behave in a very abnormal way and seems as if they are talking or arguing with a person who is not there in reality. At times or depending on the severity, Schizophrenic people result in combination of hallucinations, delusions and disordered thinking and speech that impairs their daily functional life and appears to others that they are disabled to do anything in a right or correct manner as per the customs and society. Schizophrenia is a chronic condition, requiring lifetime treatment.

Types of Mental Illness
Types of Mental Illness

The main symptoms of Schizophrenia are Hallucinations, Delusions, Disordered thinking, behaviour and speech. Among the negative symptoms, we can narrate the symptom as reduced or lack of ability to function normally. For example, the person may neglect personal hygiene or appear to lack emotion (doesn’t make eye contact, doesn’t change facial expressions or speaks in a monotone). Also, the person may have lose interest in everyday activities, socially withdraw or lack the ability to experience pleasure.

3.Bipolar Disorder

Types of Mental Illness,Bipolar Disorder also known as Manic Depression is a primary mood disorder. It is primarily concerned with mood swings in a person. Bipolar disorder is a disease or illness which has extremes of mood changes, be it highly happy energetic or highly sad depression state. This illness causes so much frequent changes in moods that then it’s very difficult for such persons to be accepted in the world in the working field or in relations with the family or friends.

Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar Disorder

In Bipolar Disorder there are revolving episodes of depression and mania which is considered to be a lifelong illness or disorder. The severity of mood changes diagnoses the type of disorder and they present with the severity.

4. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

When people start getting unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, images and sensations (obsessions) and behave in manners in response or related to those unwanted thoughts, feelings, images and sensations, that anxiety disorder can be diagnosed as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. It often happens that the person suffering with OCD, behaves in ways to reduce the impact or get free from those obsessive thoughts and images but this only gives temporary relief from OCD.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

The level of OCD can be mild or severe as not performing as per those obsessions can cause great anxiety to the concerned person with OCD. If OCD is left untreated or taken very lightly, it can result in inability to function like a normal human being, be at work or school or home or with known family or friends.

5.Panic Disorder

Panic Disorders results from sudden attacks of fear and troubles. It can occur without any known reason. But mostly it is generated by fear producing events and thoughts.

Panic DIsorder
Panic Disorder

The symptoms of Panic Disorder can be as follows:

  • Rapid and fast Heartbeats
  • Strange Chest Sensations
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness
  • Prickling and Trickling
  • Restlessness

Panic Disorders can result in nervousness, restlessness, and withdrawals from common activities, hyperventilation and agitation. Panic disorder is believed to be due to an abnormal activation of the body’s hormonal system. Panic Disorders are treatable. The treatment involves intellectual interactive therapy, getting exposed to the world to get to know the real happenings so that it can effect in symptom reduction of Panic Disorders and there can be certain medication too, depending on the severity of the disorders.

6.Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition when the person is horrified or terrified by very tragic events in life. Those events can be either experienced or witnessed.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

The symptoms of PTSD can be nightmares, flashbacks or severe anxiety, uncontrollable thoughts about the events which has been either witnessed or experienced. In most of the cases of PTSD, people gone through traumatic events have temporary problem in accepting, coping and adjusting, but with proper care and time and good self-care, they usually starts living a normal life. But if no proper care and attention is provided to the effected people, then the symptoms gets worse and lasts for longer durations with delays or restrictions in the day-to-day activities and functioning. Getting effective treatment after PTSD symptoms develop can be critical to reduce symptoms and improve function.

7.Borderline Personality Disorder

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious mental illness categorised by prevalent variability or uncertainty in moods, personal relationships, self-image, and behaviour. This instability often upsets family and work life, long-term planning, and a person’s sense of uniqueness. People with BPD, originally thought to be at the “border” of psychosis and neurosis, suffer from problems with feelings guideline. While less well known than schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, BPD affects two percent of adults.

Borderline Personality Disorder
Borderline Personality Disorder

Types of Mental Illness,People with BPD exhibit high rates of self-damaging behaviour, such as cutting and, in severe cases, significant rates of suicide attempts and completed suicide. Damage from BPD and suicide risk are greatest in the young-adult years and tend to decrease with age. BPD is more common in females than in males, with 75 percent of cases diagnosed among women. People with borderline personality disorder often need widespread mental health services and account for 20 percent of psychiatric hospitalizations. Yet, with help, many improve over time and are eventually able to lead productive lives.

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